Unit 9. PRESERVING THE ENVIRONMENT
Part I. PHONETICS
Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in position the of the primary stress in each of the following questions.
1. A. disposal B. animal C. energy D. poverty
2. A. awareness B. solution C. importance D. happiness
3. A. origin B. dependence C. harmony D. factory
4. A. replacement B. pollutant C. resident D. depletion
5. A. instrument B. engineer C. newsletter D. family
6. A. vehicle B. musical C. article D. reduction
7. A. consumption B. chemical C. neighborhood D. pesticide
8. A. scientist B. consequence C. detergent D. influence
9. A. erosion B. atmosphere C. resources D. confusion
10. A. volunteer B. charity C. vegetable D. injury
Part II. VOCABULARY
Exercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
11. If you ask me, ____ waste is a much bigger problem than ordinary household waste.
A. industrial B. business C. working D. manufacturing
12. Do you know what CFC ____?
A. sets in B. does up C. stands for D. gets down
13. There’s been a ____ in Germany and a village was completely destroyed.
A. flood B. drizzle C. shower D. smog
14. Dinosaurs have been ____ for millions of years.
A. endangered B. extinct C. threatened D. disappeared
15. As town grow, they tend to destroy the surrounding ____ areas.
A. urban B. commercial C. land D. rural
16. During the last hundred years we have done great ____ to the environment.
A. injury B. pollution C. damage D. hurt
17. There are lots of things we can all do to ____ the environment.
A. enhance B. protect C. make D. build
18. Environmentalists are furious with the American Government for delaying measures which will reduce greenhouse gas ____.
A. exhaust fumes B. smokes C. wastes D. emissions
19. The government is introducing strict new rules on the dumping of ____ by industry.
A. pesticides B. exhaust fumes. C. toxic waste D. emissions
20. Farmers contribute to environmental damage by spraying ____ with ____, which stay in the soil for years.
A. agriculture – pesticides B. agriculture - fertilizers
C. crops – fertilizers D. crops - pesticides
21. The gradual rise in the Earth's temperature is known as ____.
A. greenhouse effect B. global warming C. ozone layer D. acid rain
22. The ____ that are produced by factories and cars are allowing more ____ from the sun to reach carth.
A. gases – radiation B. gases - light C. gas – light D. gas - radiation
23. As the Earth gets hotter, the Arctic and Antarctic ____ will slowly melt and the level of the oceans will rise.
A. snowballs B. avalanches C. ice caps D. icebergs
24. There will be ____, too. Some areas will become wetter while others will become much drier.
A. weather changes B. weather forecasts C. climatic changes D. climate changes
25. Thousands of acres of forest are being cut down every year and the ____ of many animals are being destroyed.
A. natural resources B. natural habitats C. ways of life D. living surroundings
26. Many of the world's largest cities are ____ and some are permanently covered by a ____.
A. heavily polluted - polluted cloud B. heavy pollution - polluted cloud
C. heavy pollution - cloud of pollution D. heavily polluted - cloud of pollution
27. Make sure your car runs on unleaded petrol and your home uses sources of ____ energy.
A. recycling B. reused C. renewable D. recyclable
28. Scientists have found holes in the ____, particularly over Antarctica.
A. ice caps B. polar ice C. ozone layer D. greenhouse
29. Greenpeace is an international group that protests against anything which is a ____ to the environment.
A. threat B. threaten C. threatening D. threatener
30. If government don't ____ global warming, more natural disasters will occur.
A. achieve B. promote C. discourage D. prevent
31. There's has been a steady rise in the average temperature around the planet over the last hundred years or so, and the majority of scientists put it ____ to human activity.
A. down B. back C. up D. across
32. However, some scientists argue that the historical evidence shows that over time the Earth heats ____ and cools ____ naturally.
A. up - away B. away - down C. up-down D. down - up
33. It is predicted that over the next few decades many species will die ____ as once fertile areas turn to desert.
A. off B. out С. up D. down
34. Most of the air pollution results ____ the burning of fossil fuels, motor vehicles, factories, aircraft and rockets.
A. in B. to C. on D. from
35. Environmental pollution is becoming an ____ serious problem that needs to be taken care of as soon as possible.
A. increasingly B. increasing C. increase D. increased
Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
36. We are facing severe environmental pollution despite the fact that many world organizations are working hard to reduce it.
A. heavy B. destructive C. harmful D. serious
37. Water pollution is a result of dumping pollutants such as detergents, pesticides, oil, and other chemicals in rivers, which makes the water unclean.
A. substances B. stuffs C. contaminants D. wastes
38. Stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.
A. coexist peacefully with B. fall in love with C. agree with D. cooperate with
39. WWF was set up in 1961 and had its operations in areas such as the preservation of biological diversity.
A. difference B. abundance C. variety D. plenty
40. The seashore was much polluted because of the amount of waste left there. All this rubbish is killing fish and other marine life.
A. sea plants B. sea mammals C. water life D. sea creatures
41. In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature. However, it has operated under the original name in the US and Canada.
A. old B. former C. first D. ancient
42. Some of WWF's missions are: conserving the world's biological diversity, ensuring the use of renewable natural resources, and promoting the reduction of pollution.
A. jobs B. careers C. tasks D. actions
43. Air pollution is a consequence of fossil fuel burning by motor vehicles, factories, aircraft and rockets.
A. product B. example C. harm D. result
44. The natural environment has been seriously influenced and degraded by human activities through many decades.
A. worsened B. damaged C. destroyed D. reduced
45. Global warming is the gradual increase of temperature on the Earth's surface due to greenhouse effect.
A. steady B. slow C. sharp D. abrupt
Exercise 4. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
46. Fresh water is very important to life because no one can live without it. Yet it is one of the limited and most endangered natural resources on our planet.
A. Clean B. Drinkable C. Polluted D. Running
47. One way to protect our environment from pollution is to reduce wasteful consumption.
A. costly B. excessive C. safe D. economical
48. If you follow at least one of the tips, you can be proud of taking part in the preservation of water, one of the very important and limited natural resources on earth.
A. self-confident B. self-satisfied C. discontent D. unpleasant
49. Soil pollution leads to lack of fertile land to grow enough food for an increasing population.
A. arid B. rich C. unclean D. deserted
50. Global warming may lead to many negative changes, including harsher weather conditions.
A. more unbearable B. milder C. more extreme D. more scrious
Part III. GRAMMAR
Exercise 5. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
51. "I'm a big fan of U23.” Derek said.
Derek said he ____ a big fan of U23.
A. was B. has been C. were D. had been
52. "We're watching TV," said the twins.
The twins said they ____ TV.
A. watched B. were watching C. have been watching D. had watched
53. “You've been annoying me all day!" my mum said.
My mum said I ____ her all day.
A. annoyed B. was annoying C. have been annoying D. had been annoying
54. "The dog ate my homework!” said Ivan.
Ivan said the dog his homework.
A. was eating B. has eaten C.ate D. had eaten
55. "At one o'clock, I was having lunch," said Molly.
Molly said she ____ lunch at one o'clock.
A. had been having B. has had C. is having D. has been having
56. "You'll get wet without an umbrella," Dad said.
Dad said I ____ wet without an umbrella.
A. will be getting B. got C. would be getting D. would get
57. "He can juggle five balls!" said Angie.
Angie said he ____ five balls.
A. juggled B. had juggled C. would juggle D. could juggle
58. “You must give me your essays," Mrs Vine said.
Mrs Vine said we ____ give her our essays.
A. were having to B. would have to C. had to D. must
59. “Could you pass me the salt, please?" I asked the man next to me.
Tasked the man next to me ____ me the salt.
A. pass B. if he passes C. to pass D. if he would pass
60. "Would you mind waiting for a moment?" the shop assistant asked the woman.
The shop assistant asked the woman ____ for a moment.
A. to wait B. waiting C. if she waits D. if she minds waiting
61. “Please don't leave your dirty football boots in the hall," Mum said to Doug.
Mum told Doug ____ dirty football boots in the hall.
A. that he doesn't leave his B. not to leave his C. not to leave your D. don't leave his
62. "Could you tell us where you were at six o'clock?" the police officer asked Barry.
The police officer asked Barry ____ had been at six o'clock.
A. telling him where you B. where he tells him he
C. to tell him where you D. to tell him where he
63. "Could I have your e-mail address?" I asked Mariella.
I asked Mariella ____ e -mail address.
A. to give me her B. give me your C. give me her D. gave me your
64. "Can I have a new Xbox for my birthday?" I asked my mum.
I asked my mum ____ a new Xbox for my birthday.
A. that she gets me B. get me C. to get me D. if she could have me
65. "What's your name?" she asked me.
She asked me ____.
A. what your name is B. what your name was C. what my name is D. what my name was
66. "Are you a student?" the man asked the boy.
The man wanted to know ____.
A. if I was a student B. if the boy was a student
C. if I am a student D. if the boy is a student
67. "What school are you going to?" he asked me.
He wanted to know ____.
A. what school am I going to B. what school you are going to
C. what was the school I go to D. what school I was going to
68. "I won't be home this evening because I have to work late," Mike said.
Mike said that ____.
A. I wouldn't be home this evening because I had to work late
B. he wouldn't be home this evening because he had to work late
C. he won't be home this evening because he has to work late
D. he wouldn't be home that evening because he had to work late
69. "You can sit here," the stewardess said.
The stewardess said ____.
A. you can sit here B. I could sit here C. I could sit there D. you could sit there
70. “Anna left here an hour ago," she said.
She told me that ____.
A. Anna had left here an hour ago B. Anna had left there an hour ago
C. Anna had left here an hour before D. Anna had left there an hour before
71. "I don't want anything to eat now," he said.
He said ____.
A. he doesn't want anything to eat now B. he didn't want anything to eat then
C. I didn't want anything to eat then D. I didn't want anything to eat now
72. “I've only had this new bicycle since yesterday," Karen said.
Karen said that ____.
A. I had only had this new bicycle since yesterday
B. he had only had that new bicycle since the day before
C. I had only had this new bicycle since the day before
D. he's only had that new bicycle since the day before
73. "Don't waste water, Mum said to Mary.
Mum told Mary____.
A. that she doesn't waste water B. to waste water
C. don't waste water D. not to waste water
74. "You shouldn't use your cars for short distances, the teacher said.
The teacher advised her students ____.
A. that you shouldn't use your cars for short distances
B. not to use their cars for short distances
C. not to use your cars for short distances
D. not to use her cars for short distances
75. "I'll finish it by the end of this week," he said.
He promised ____.
A. he'll finish it by the end of this week B. he would finish it by the end of this week
C. to finish it by the end of that week D. to finish it by the end of this week
76. "Don't forget to turn the tap off before you leave. " Grandma said.
Grandma reminded me ____.
A. to turn the tap off before I left B. turn the tap off before you left
C. don't forget to turn the tap off before I left D. to turn the tap off before you left
77. Dorothy asked him _____ Sarah was his sister.
A. that B. if C. what D. who
78. Tom and Henry asked me to go with ____.
A. him B. their C. them D. they
79. I asked Martha ____ to join the Green Club.
A. whether she is planning B. if she was planning
C. when was she planning D. where she was planning
80. Bob wanted to know when ____.
A. will the exam be taken B. the exam will be taken
C. would the exam be taken D. the exam would be taken
Exercise 6. Mark the letter A, B, C. or D to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions.
81. Tim called yesterday and said he needed the report right now.
A B C D
82. Sally called from Miami and said that she was swimming here.
A B C D
83. They complained that there isn't any fresh water in the local area.
A B C D
84. Rosy said that she will come back there on another project the following year.
A B C D
85. Tony promised that he would do his homework today.
A B C D
86. Clarence said he couldn't have repaired the car the next day.
A B C D
87. Mr Jones told his children not to wasting fresh water.
A B C D
88. The teacher asked his students to focus on your topic.
A B C D
89. Sally suggested to go to school by bicycle in order to save energy.
A B C D
90. Harry offered lending a hand with keeping the school environment clean.
A B C D
Part IV. SPEAKING
Exercise 7. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges.
91. "Why don't we have a look at some websites for more information about the environment?" – “____”
A. Yes, thanks. B. Yes, why not? C. It's my pleasure. D. Do we?
92. "____" - "By bus."
A. What did you take to get there? B. Did you get there by motorbike?
C. How long did it take you to get there? D. How did you get there?
93. "Hi, Jack. ____" - "Not bad. And you?"
A. How's everything? B. What's everything? C. What do you do? D. How do you do?
94. " ____" - "That's a good idea."
A. What about recycling water for gardening? B. Sorry, can I say something?
C. Glad to work with you. D. Excuse me, I want to add something.
95. "Shall I empty the dustbin?" – “____”
A. Make yourself at home. B. Nice to meet you!
C. It's very nice of you to do so. D. Long time no see.
96. "Can I borrow your notes, please?" – “____”
A. Well done! B. No, thanks. C. Yes, sure. D. Yes, I can.
97. "Would you like to join this Green Project with us?" - "____”
A. Yes, I would B. Why not? C. I'd love to D. It doesn't matter.
98. "Where should we start with the project?" – “____”
A. I never mind. B. I'm glad to hear that.
C. Oh, that would be great. D. What about searching the webs?
99. "Hi, John. Congratulations!" – “____”
A. I'm sorry. B. Thank you. C. My pleasure. D. You're welcome.
100."Excuse me! Where is the recycling center?" – “____”
A. Let me see. B. I'm not sure. C. Hold on, please. D. It's over there.
101. Thanks for doing that." - "____”
A. It's my pleasure B. Don't say that. C. Not at all. D. It's nice of you
102. "How long will the meeting last?" – “____”
A. Half past ten. B. Since early morning.
C. Once a week, usually. D. An hour or so, I expect.
103. "____" - "I'm going to make a table."
A. Why is this recycled wood used? B. How is this recycled wood used?
C. What's this recycled wood for? D. Whose is this recycled wood?
104. “____” - "It was very sunny and hot. We had a bit of a heatwave.
A. Did you enjoy your holiday? B. How was the wave?
C. What was the weather like there? D. How was the beach?
105. "Could you do me a favor, please?" – “____”
A. Let me help you. B. Sure. What can I do for you?
C. No, thanks. I'm fine. D. Yes, go ahead!
Part V. READING
Exercise 8. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or correct word that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Few people now question the reality of global warming and its effects on the world's climate. Many scientists (106) ____ the blame for recent natural disasters on the increase in the world's temperatures and are convinced that, more than (107) ____ before, the Earth is at (108) ____ from the forces of the wind, rain and sun. (109) ____ to them, global warming is making extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and droughts, even more (110) ____ and causing sea levels all around the world to (111) _____.
Environmental groups are putting (112) ____ on governments to take actions to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide which is given (113) ____ by factories and power plants, thus attacking the problems at its source. They are in (114) ____ of more money being spent on research into solar, wind and wave energy devices, which could then replace existing power (115) ____.
Some scientists, (116) ____ , believe that even if we stopped releasing carbon dioxide and other gasses into the atmosphere tomorrow, we would have to wait (117) ____ hundred years to notice the results. Global warming, it seems, is here to stay.
106. A. give B. put C. take D. have
107. A. yet B. never C. once D. ever
108. A. threat B. danger C. risk D. harm
109. A. Concerning B. Regarding C. Depending D. According
110. A. strict B. severe C. strong D. heavy
111. A. raise B. arise C. rise D. lift
112. A. force B. pressure C. persuasion D. encouragement
113. A. off B. away C. up D. over
114. A. belief B. request C. favor D. suggestion
115. A. factories B. generations C. houses D. stations
116. A. but B. although C. despite D. however
117. A. several B. over C. numerous D. various
Exercise 9. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
THINK BEFORE YOU TOSS
Countries around the world have growing mountains of trash because people are throwing out more trash than ever before. How did we become a throwaway society?
First of all, it is now easier to replace an item than to spend time and money to repair it. Thanks to modern manufacturing and technology, companies are able to produce items quickly and inexpensively. Products are plentiful and prices are low, so we would rather buy something new than repair it. Even if we did want to repair something, many items are almost impossible to repair. These products contain many tiny, complicated parts. Some even contain small computer chips. It's easier to throw these items away and buy new ones than to fix them.
Another contributing factor is our love of disposable products. As busy people, we are always looking for ways to save time and make our lives easier. Why should we use cloth kitchen towels? It's easier to use paper towel once and toss it out. Companies manufacture thousands of different kinds of disposable items: paper plates, plastic cups, cameras, and razors for shaving, to name a few. The problem is that disposable products also contribute to our trash problem.
Our appetite for new products also contributes to the problem. We are addicted to buying things. As consumers, we want the latest clothes, the best TVs, and cellphones with west features. Companies tell us to buy, buy, and buy. Advertisements persuade us wer is better. The result is that we throw away useful possessions to make room for new ones.
118. Which of the following is NOT a reason for people to replace a broken item?
A. Products are now mass produced at affordable prices.
B. It takes almost no time to fix broken items.
C. Many items are too complicated to repair.
D. Some products contain tiny, complicated chips.
119. All of the following are disposable products, EXCEPT ____.
A. cloth kitchen towels B. paper plates C. plastic cups D. razors for shaving
120. The word “disposable" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ____.
A. convenient B. inexpensive C. throwaway D. single-use
121. Why are we hooked on buying new things?
A. We throw the old items to make room for the new ones.
B. We have more money than ever before.
C. We want to own as many things as possible.
D. We are made to believe that the new is the better.
122. The word “appetite” in the last paragraph can be best replaced by ____.
A. need B. demand C. desire D. taste
Exercise 10. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
THE BALANCE OF NATURE
All the different plants and animals in a natural community are in a state of balance. This balance is achieved by the plants and animals interacting with each other and with their non-living surroundings. An example of a natural community is a woodland, and a woodland is usually dominated by a particular species of plant, such as the oak tree in an oak wood. The oak tree in this example is therefore called the dominant species but there are also many other types of plants, from brambles, bushes, and small trees to mosses, lichens and algae growing on tree trunks and rocks.
The plants of a community are the producers: they use carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen to build up their tissues using energy in the form of sunlight. The plant tissues form food for the plant-eating animals (herbivores) which are in turn eaten by flesh-eating animals (carnivores). Thus, plants produce the basic food supply for all the animals of a community. The animals themselves are the consumers, and are either herbivores or carnivores.
Examples of herbivores in a woodland community are rabbits, deer, mice and snails, and insects such as aphids and caterpillars. The herbivores are sometimes eaten by the carnivores. Woodland carnivores are of all sizes, from insects such as beetles and lacewings to animals such as owls, shrews and foxes. Some carnivores feed on herbivores, some feed on the smaller carnivores, while some feed on both: a tawny owl will eat beetles and shrews as well as voles and mice. These food relationships between the different members of the community are known as food chains or food webs. All food chains start with plants. The links of the chain are formed by the herbivores that eat the plants and the carnivores that feed on the herbivores. There are more organisms at the base of the food chain than at the top; for example, there are many more green plants than carnivores in a community.
Another important section of the community is made up of the decomposers. They include the bacteria and fungi that live in the soil and feed on dead animals and plants. By doing this they break down the tissues of the dead organisms and release mineral salts into the soil.
123. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. All the plants in a wood are eaten by animals.
B. All the animals in a wood depend on plants for their food supply.
C. Plants and animals in a natural community do not interact with their non-living surroundings.
D. The balance of a natural community means there is no primary species.
124. The best definition for the word “dominant" in paragraph 1 is ____.
A. having the most important position B. covering the majority of the area
C. providing food for others D. making up the whole community
125. All of the following statements are true, EXCEPT ____.
A. some animals eat other animals
B. plants depend on the sun to grow
C. plants depend on the gasses in the atmosphere to grow
D. not every food chain starts with plants
126. The word "tissues" in paragraph 2 can be best replaced by ____.
A. leaves B. roots C. cells D. trunks
127. Which of the following is NOT an example of carnivores?
A. shrew B. lacewings C. owl D. aphids
128. What makes the links in a food chain?
A. the plants and the herbivores B. the herbivores and the carnivores
C. the carnivores and the decomposers D. the plants and the decomposers
129. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Some animals eat plant-eating animals and also flesh-eating animals.
B. There are more organism at the base of a food chain than at the top.
C. Green plants outnumber carnivores in a food chain.
D. The consumers are at the base of a food chain.
130. The word “organism" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ____.
A. plants B. animals C. herbivores D. living things
Part VI. WRITING
Exercise 11. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
131. “We saw a strange man in the garden," they told their son.
A. They told their son that we had seen a strange man in the garden.
B. They told their son that they had seen a strange man in the garden.
C. They told their son that we saw a strange man in the garden.
D. They told their son that they saw a strange man in the garden.
132. “We're staying in tonight," said Emily.
A. Emily said that we were staying in tonight. B. Emily said that they were staying in tonight
C. Emily said that we were staying in that night. D. Emily said that they were staying in that night.
133. "I've bought a ring," he said to his girlfriend.
A. He said his girlfriend that he had bought a ring.
B. He said his girlfriend that he bought a ring.
C. He told his girlfriend that he had bought a ring.
D. He told his girlfriend that he bought a ring.
134. "We went to work yesterday," she said.
A. She said that they had been to work the day before.
B. She told that they had been to work the day before.
C. She said that they had been to work the following day.
D. She said that she had been to work the day before.
135. "Don't swim out too far, boys," he said.
A. He encouraged the boys not to swim out too far.
B. He advised the boys not to swim out too far.
C. He warned the boys not to swim out too far.
D. He threatened the boys not to swim out too far.
136. "I'm sorry I couldn't come to your birthday party last Friday, Jane," Bod said.
A. Bob is sorry for not coming to Jane's birthday party last Friday.
B. Bob apologizes for not coming to Jane's birthday party last Friday.
C. Bob makes excuses for not coming to Jane's birthday party last Friday.
D. Bob wishes to come to Jane's birthday party last Friday.
137. "Let's go for a walk. We've been working all day,” said Joanna.
A. Joanna suggested going for a walk because they had been working all day.
B. Joanna insisted on going for a walk because they had been working all day.
C. Joanna suggested going for a walk because they have been working all day.
D. Joanna suggested going for a walk because she had been working all day.
138. "You'd better not waste your time, Tommy," Mum said.
A. Mum urged Tommy to waste time. B. Mum advised Tommy not to waste your time.
C. Mum advised Tommy not to waste his time. D. Mum advised Tommy not to waste her time. 139. “I'll take the children to the park," said the husband to his wife.
A. The husband asked the wife to take the children to the park.
B. The husband offered to take the children to the park.
C. The husband insisted on taking the children to the park.
D. The husband requested to take the children to the park.
140."You've broken my CD player, Sam," said Jenny.
A. Jenny charged Sam with having broken her CD player.
B. Jenny charged Sam with having broken his CD player.
C. Jenny blamed Sam for having broken her CD player.
D. Jenny blamed Sam for having broken his CD player.