Unit 7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Part I. PHONETICS
Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
1. A. protest B. wedding C. reception D. success
2. A. present B. decrease C. increase D. mouse
3. A. complicated B. bridegroom C. originate D. superst ition
4. A. country B. contrast C. culture D. ceremony
5. A. good B. moon C. groom D. food
Exercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following questions.
6. A. increase B. engage C. prepare D. propose
7. A. happy B. perfect C. formal D. married
8. A. couple B. promise C. import D. wedding
9. A. export B. decrease C. present D. belief
10. A. contrast B. object C. rebel D. support
Part II. VOCABULARY
Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
11. In some Asian countries, the groom and bride ____ their wedding rings in front of the altar.
A. change B. exchange C. give D. take
12. In Scotland, the bride’s mother may invite the wedding guests to her house to ____ off all the wedding gifts.
A. show B. turn C. put D. get
13. On the wedding day, the best man is expected to help the ____.
A. bride B. groom C. guest D. bridesmaid
14. In the past, the ____ and engagement ceremonies took place one or two years before the wedding.
A. propose B. proposing C. proposal D. proposed
15. Superstitions ____ an important part in the lives of many people in Viet Nam.
A. take B. act C. occupy D. play
16. Viet Nam has kept a variety of superstitious ____ about daily activities.
A. believe B. believing C. beliefs D. believable
17. Traditionally, most Vietnamese people never ____ the floor during the first three days of the New Year.
A. sweep B. paint C. polish D. resurface
18. Viet Nam is a country situated in Asia, where many mysteries and legends ____.
A. origin B. originate C. original D. originally
19. The British usually pay a lot of ____ to good table manners and are expected to use knives, forks and spoons properly.
A. money B. care C. attention D. compliment
20. In the U.S, children can choose their own partners even if their parents object ____ their choice.
A. to B. for C. against D. with
21. In the UK, 18-year-olds tend to receive a silver key as a present to ____ their entry into the adult world.
A. symbol B. symbolic C. symbolize D. symbolist
22. In Australia, on Mother’s Day, the second Sunday in May, children prepare and ____ their mothers ‘breakfast in bed’.
A. cook B. serve C. display D. present
23. People in Mexico ____ Mother's Day on May 10 by giving their mothers handmade gifts, flowers, clothing and household appliances.
A. open B. memorize C. celebrate D. perform
24. In Viet Nam, you shouldn’t ____ at somebody’s house on the lst day of the New Year unless you have been invited by the house owner.
A. show up B. get up C. put up D. go up
25. The newly-weds will fly to Venice to spend their ____ tomorrow.
A. vacation B. honeymoon C. holiday D. marriage
26. After the wedding ceremony at the church, they go to the hotel for the wedding ____.
A. cake B. ring C. day D. reception
27. The bride and groom cut the wedding cake and ____ speeches.
A. prepared B. wrote C. heard D. made
28. Some Koreans believe that it’s impolite to ____ eye contact with a person who has a high position.
A. maintain B. lose C. show D. put
29. Brazilians often ____ each other’s arms, hands or shoulders during a conversation.
A. lend B. shake C. touch D. move
30. American people are very informal at home, so they often ____ their hands to eat some kinds of food.
A. use B. lend C. wash D. shake
31. Egypt is a traditional country, and it has many customs that are different ____ the U.S.
A. of B. from C. to D. for
32. English people believe that it is unlucky to open an umbrella in the house,which will bring ____ to the person who has opened it.
A. loss B. misfortune C. success D. truth
33. Superstition suggests that you'll get seven years of bad luck if you ____ a mirror.
A. break B. buy C. borrow D. see
34. In the UK, seven is usually regarded ____ the luckiest number while thirteen is the opposite.
A. as B. like C. with D. for
35. Polite behavior in one country, however, may be ____ in another part of the world.
A. formal B. informal C. impolite D. appropriate
36. In Germany, it is important to arrive ____ time when you are invited to someone's house.
A. in B. after C. before D. on
37. Learning about cultural differences in politeness helps you avoid a lot of ____.
A. embarrass B. embarrassment C. embarrassed D. embarrassing
38. On many days of the year, Vietnamese people not only ____ the table for meals, but they also put food on the altar for their ancestors.
A. lay B. lie C. book D. clear
39. The woman you are engaged to is your ____.
A. fiancé B. bridesmaid C. match-maker D. fiancée
40. At the church ceremony, the couple have to make their wedding ____.
A. vows B. invitations C. flowers D. cakes
Exercise 4. Mark the letter A. B. C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
41. Mary is planning to tie the knot with her German boyfriend next June.
A. get married B. say goodbye C. get together D. fall in love
42. In some Asian countries like Viet Nam or China, money is given to the newly-married couple as a wedding present.
A. gift B. donation C. souvenir D. contribution
43. In Viet Nam, it is customary to choose a favourable day for occasions such as wedding, funerals, or house-moving days.
A. suitable B. favourite C. beautiful D. whole
44. Americans value freedom and do not like to be dependent on other people.
A. addicted B. supportive C. reliant D. responsible
45. In most American families, parents have less influence on their children than those in other parts of the world.
A. power B. effect C. attention D. care
Exercise 5. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
46. Being practical, Americans avoid taking jobs which are beyond their ability.
A. out of B. far from C. within D. inside
47. In many countries, it is customary for the bride to throw her bouquet of flowers into a crowd of well-wishers.
A. uncommon B. inadvisable C. usual D. normal
48. To an American, success is the result of hard work and self-reliance.
A. devotion B. industry C. laziness D. enthusiasm
49. Success has always meant providing their families with a decent standard of living.
A. high B. good C. acceptable D. low
50. Stores everywhere compete to sell their distinctive versions of Christmas cake before the holiday.
A. different B. various C. similar D special
Part III. GRAMMAR
Exercise 6. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
51. These days, in India, there are ____ married couples who live on their own than before.
A. more B. many C. less D. little
52. In some countries in the Middle East, people stand ____ to each other than those in North America in a conversation.
A. most closely B. more closely C. closer D. closest
53. Wedding ceremonies are ____ now than they used to be in the past.
A. less complicated B. the most complicated C. as complicated D. the least complicated
54. It's much ____ to celebrate a small and cozy wedding to save money.
A. best B. better C. the best D. the better
55. In some Asian families, parents tend to have far ____ control over their children than those in some American families.
A. the most B. the more C. more D. most
56. This is ____ wedding party I’ve ever attended.
A. the more memorable B. more memorable C. the most memorable D. most memorable
57. Chocolates and flowers are by far ____ presents for mothers on Mother's Day in the UK.
A. more popular B. the more popular C. less popular D. the most popular
58. Chuseok is one of ____ celebrations in the Korean calendar when Koreans give thanks to nature.
A. the most important B. the more important
C. the less important D. more important
59. The more polite you appear to be, ____ your partner will be.
A. the happiest B. the happier C. the most happily D. the more happily
60. Of the two bridesmaids, Lisa turned out to be ____.
A. the most charming B. the least charming C. more charming D th e more charming
61. The Korean are ____ than the American in addressing their bosses.
A. more formal B. formal C. most formal D. the most formal
62. There are ____ occasions for giving gifts in modern societies than before.
A. less B. more C. the least D. the most
63. June has become ____ month for weddings in many countries when the symbolic flowers, roses, usually bloom.
A. more popular B. less popular C. the most popular D. the least popular
64. Before doing something important, Vietnamese people always try to choose ____ time for it.
A. better B. less good C. the least good D. the best
65. My grandmother feels much ____ whenever I give her a homemade cake on Mother’s Day.
A. happier B. more happily C. the happiest D. the most happily
66. People in ____ Western countries are often surprised to learn that ____ Japanese celebrate Christinas.
A. Ø - Ø B. the - the C. the - Ø D. Ø - the
67. In Japan, ____ most important holiday of ____ season is New Year’s Day, which comes one week after Christmas.
A. the - the B. Ø – the C. the – Ø D. the – a
68. In India, in the old days, ____ girl’s family used to give ____ boy’s family a gift like money or jewellery.
A. a – a B. a – the C. the – a D. the – the
69. It is appropriate to bring ____ small gift when visiting ____ home in the U.S.
A. the - a B. a – a C. a – the D. the – the
70. Traditionally, ____ bride and groom go on their honeymoon immediately after ____ wedding reception.
A. a - the B. the – a C. the – the D. a – a
71. Whenever I set out for ____ examination, I always try to avoid crossing ____ path of ____ woman.
A. an – the - a B. an – a – the C. an – the – the D. the – the – a
72. In a wedding ceremony, ____ best man helps ____ groom ready for every preparation.
A. the – a B. a – the C. the – the D. a – a
73. People say that ____ gift lets ____ recipient know how we are thinking of them.
A. the - the B. a – a C. the – a D. a – the
74. Wearing a wedding veil which covers ____ head and face is ____ 2,000-years-old tradition.
A. a - the B. the - a C. the - the D. a - a
75. In the U.S, while represents goodness and is usually ____ color of ____ bride’s wedding dress.
A. a – a B. a – the C. the – a D. the – the
76. Is is acceptable to touch ____ person on ____ shoulder in a conversation?
A. a - the B. the – the C. the – a D. a – a
77. ____ man should take off his hat when he goes into ____ house in the UK.
A. A – the B. A – a C. The – a D. The – the
78. W hen you stay at ____ friend's house, you should write ____ thank-you note.
A. a - a B. the - a C. a - the D. the - the
79. Christmas Eve is ____ best time for Japanese youngsters to go out for ____ special, romantic evening.
A. a - a B. the - a C. the – the D. a - the
80. ____ Japanese manage not to ask direct questions in order not to embarrass ____ person who they are speaking with.
A. A - the B. A - a C. The - the D. The - a
Exercise 7. Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions.
81. People believe that if they borrow money at a beginning of the year, they will have to be in debt for the rest
A B C D
of that year.
82. In traditional Indian families, the parents used to arranging the marriage for their children.
A B C D
83. It is common for Japanese to adapt foreign customs and make them their own.
A B C D
84. In Viet Nam, at the dinner table, you should serve the adults the first and then the children.
A B C D
85. If you make the wish, then blow out all the candles on your birthday cake in one breath, your wish will be
A B C D
86. No one is the happiest than the bride and groom on the day of their wedding.
A B C D
87. On first day of the Lunar New Year, Vietnamese people go to the pagoda to pray for the best luck of the
A B C D
88. For American people, success means ending their career in the highest and more prosperous position than
A B C
when they began it.
89. Superstitions exist everywhere on this planet; however, Viet Nam and Asia alike can be
A B C
the more superstitious than other continents.
90. In Viet Nam, gifts for brides and grooms are usually in pairs; for example, two less expensive blankets are
A B C
more desired than the nicer one.
Part IV. SPEAKING
Exercise 8. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges.
91. A: “Have you heard? Martin and Lisa have just got engaged!"
A. Really? That’s fantastic! B. Congratulations!
C. Let’s celebrate! D. Good luck!
92. A: “Well, Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie have just decided to divorce! Don't you know?"
A. I couldn’t agree more. B. Oh, thanks!
C. Really? Are you kidding? D. No, not right now.
93. A: “What a beautiful wedding dress you are wearing today, Daisy!"
A. I'm sorry to hear that. B. Thanks, it’s nice of you to say so.
C. Don't mention it. D. Thanks for your gift!
94. A: "Let’s go and cheer for their happiness today!"
A. No, thanks. B. Have a go, please. C. That’s a good idea! D. It’s too late.
95. A: “Why don’t we make a cake for Mom on Mother’s Day?"
A. Sure, let’s plan on it. B. Thanks, I’d love to.
C. To make her happy. D. Great! I’d like some flowers.
96. A:”What gifts should I bring to a dinner party in Viet Nam?"
A. I don’t care. B. You should arrive on time.
C. Dress casually. D. Just some fruits or cakes.
97. A: “I’m afraid I can't come to your house-warming party next Saturday."
A. That sounds fun. B. Oh, what a pity! C. That’s ridiculous. D. Oh, what a relief!
98. A: "Thank you very much for coming to our wedding!"
A. Our pleasure! Happy wedding! B. Our pleasure! Good success!
C. Don’t mention it. Go ahead! D. Don’t mention it. Just my luck!
99. A: “Thank you very much for the lovely flowers!"
A. You are welcome. B. You don't like flowers, do you?
C. Yeah, I didn’t buy those flowers. D. It was an excellent choice.
100. A: “Peter and I are going to spend our honeymoon in Jeju Island!"
A. It's fine for me. B. Qh, thanks. Good luck!
C. Have you decided yet? D. Oh, really? Have a nice holiday!
101. A: "I love watching Carnival in Rio de Janeiro. What about you?"
A. You're welcome. B. Thanks, I will. C. Me too. D. Me either.
102. A: "Guess what? Mary’s getting married next week.”
A. Is she really? That’s interesting. B. What a pity!
C. Congratulations! D. Send my regards to her, will you?
103. A: "Don’t forget to bargain when buying things in an open-air market in Viet Nam!”
A. I don't agree. B. Thanks, I will. C. Why not? D. No way
104. A: “____”
B: "You'd better shake hands firmly.”
A. What topics should I talk about when I first meet a Turkish?
B. What gifts should I give to a Turkish?
C. What should I do when I first meet a Turkish?
D. What about asking a Turkish about their age?
105. A: "Would you like to stay with us and spend our traditional Tet holidays together?”
A. What a nice idea! Thanks. B. Oh, lucky you C. What a shame, I will. D. How come?
Part V. READING
Exercise 9. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
INTERNATIONAL GIFT-GIVING CUSTOMS
The tradition of gift giving is a worldwide practice that is said to have been around since the beginning of human beings. Over time, different cultures have developed their own gift giving customs and traditions.
In France, the gift of wine for the hostess of a dinner party is not an appropriate gift as the hostess would prefer to choose the vintage for the night. In Sweden, a bottle of wine or flowers are an appropriate gift for the hostess. In Viet Nam, a gift of whisky is appropriate for the host, and some fruit or small gifts for the hostess, children or elders of the home. Besides, gifts should never be wrapped in black paper because this color is unlucky and associated with funerals in this country. Gifts that symbolize cutting such as scissors, knives and other sharp objects should be avoided because they mean the cutting of the relationship. Also, in some countries you should not open the gift in front of the giver and in others it would be an insult if you did not open the gift.
Beyond the gift itself, give careful consideration to the manner in which it is presented. Different cultures have different customs regarding how a gift should be offered - using only your right hand or using both hands, for example. Others have strong traditions related to the appropriate way to accept a gift. In Singapore, for instance, it is the standard to graciously refuse a gift several times before finally accepting it. The recipient would never unwrap a gift in front of the giver for fear of appearing greedy.
Understanding these traditions and customs, as well as taking time to choose an appropriate gift, will help you to avoid any awkwardness or embarrassment as you seek to build a better cross-cultural relationship.
106. When did the tradition of gift-giving become popular all over the world?
A. a long time ago B. thousands of years ago
C. since the beginning of humans D. since the beginning of industrialization
107. Which of the following is NOT true about gift-giving customs?
A. In France, wine is not considered a suitable gift for the hostess of a dinner party.
B. In Sweden, it is not customary to bring some wine or flowers when you are invited to a dinner party.
C . In Viet Nam, such things as scissors, knives and other sharp objects shouldn't be used as a gift.
D. In Singapore, it is unacceptable to open the gift right in front of the giver.
108. The phrase “associated with" is closest in meaning to ____.
A. connected with B. familiar with C. informed of D. similar to
109. The word “it" in paragraph 3 refer to ____.
A. consideration B. manner C. gift D. culture
110. Which of the following is the main idea of paragraph 3?
A. The people who are presented with gifts
B. The traditions of giving and receiving gifts
C. The occasions of giving and receiving gifts
D. The manners of giving and receiving gifts
Exercise 10. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
Marriage is an ancient religious and legal practice celebrated around the world. However, wedding customs vary from country to country.
The Wedding Dress: In many countries, it is customary for the bride to wear a white dress as a symbol of purity. The tradition of wearing a special white dress only for the wedding ceremony started around 150 years ago. Before that, most women could not afford to buy a dress that they would only wear once. Now, bridal dresses can be bought in a variety of styles. In some Asian countries and in the Middle East, colors of joy and happiness like red or orange other than white are worn by the bride or used as part of the wedding ceremony,
The Wedding Rings: In many cultures, couples exchange rings, usually made of golf or silver and worn on the third finger of the left or right hand, during the marriage ceremony. The circular shape of the ring is symbolic of the couple's eternal union. In Brazil, it is traditional to have the rings engraved with the bride's name on the groom’s ring, an vice versa.
Flowers: Flowers play an important role in most weddings. Roses are said to be the flowers of love, and because they usually bloom in June, this has become the most popular month for weddings in many countries. After the wedding ceremony, in many countries the bride throws her bouquet into a crowd of well-wishers – usually her single female friends. The person who catches this bouquet will be the next one to marry.
Gifts: In Chinese cultures, w edding guests give gifts of money to the newly-weds in small red envelopes. Money is also an appropriate gift at Korean and Japanese wedding. In many Western countries, for example in the U.K, wedding guests give the bride and groom household items that they may need for their new home. In Russia, rather than receiving gifts, the bride and groom provide gifts to their guests instead.
With the continued internationalization of the modern world, wedding customs that originated in one part of the world are crossing national boundaries and have been incorporated into marriage ceremonies in other countries.
111. Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
A. Wedding ceremonies B. Wedding customs C. Wedding day D. Wedding history
112. The tradition of wearing a special dress only on one’s wedding day is ____.
A. about 150 years ago B. over a century ago
C. less than 100 years ago D. less than 200 years ago
113. In some cultures, the bride wears a white dress as a traditional symbol of ____.
A. modesty B. secrecy C. purity D. security
114. In some Asian and Middle Eastern.countries, which colour is NOT considered to be suitable for a wedding?
A. red B. orange C. white D. blue
115. The phrase “eternal union" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ____.
A. never-ending relationship B. lovely relationship
C. temporary relationship D. healthy relationship
116. The word “this" in paragraph 4 refers to which of the following?
A. role B. love C. June D. rose
117. According to the passage, in which country would the wedding guests give the bride and groom money as a present?
A. Brazil B. the U.K C. China D. Russia
118. Which of the following information is TRUE according to the passage?
A. Nowadays, every bride can afford to buy a wedding dress to wear only once.
B. It is believed that any person who catches the bride’s bouquet will be the next to marry.
C . It is customary to write the groom's name on the bride’s wedding ring.
D. Thanks to globalization, one country’s wedding customs may be added to other countries’.
Exercise 11. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct word that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Many people dream of living in a foreign country. It can be an amazing experience for those (119) ____ are willing to settle down in a new place. (120) ____, there’s one potential problem you should be aware of: culture shock. Culture shock is the feeling we get from living in a place that is so different to where we grew up that we are not sure (121) ____ to deal with it. Societies are (122) ____ in many different ways. Customs and traditions can be very different and that can sometimes make it difficult to get on with local people who might not approve (123) ____ things you do and might object to things you say. You might be banned from doing things in another country that are perfectly legal in your own. For example, in Singapore people can be forced to (124) ____ a large fine just for dropping rubbish. Eventually, though, most people who live abroad fall in love with their adopted country and learn to accept its differences.
119. A. who
120. A. Therefore
121. A. what
122. A. organize
123. A. of
124. A. spend
Exercise 12. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct word that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
There are many strange superstitions in the world. The most common one is related to black cats, (125) ____ are the source of hundreds of unlucky superstitions. It’s a sign of bad luck ( 126) ____ they walk in front of you or you step on their tails. They even bring bad luck into a house if they sneeze inside! This superstition dates (127) ____ to the Middle Ages when they became associated with witches and evil spirits.
Another common superstition is about walking under a ladder. A more (128) ____ explanation can be traced back to ancient Egypt. The (129) ____ Egyptians believed that the shape of the Pyramids had a special power. It was considered very bad luck to break the “power” of this shape and that’s exactly what walking under a ladder would do!
In addition, in Roman times, people (130) ____ the habit of looking at themselves in pools of water. Some believed that these reflections were in fact “glimpses of the soul”. Any disruption to the water in the pool would bring bad luck to the person looking in it. This superstition lives on with the fear of bad luck from breaking a mirror.
125. A. which B. who C. when D. where
126. A. although B. because C. if D. unless
127. A. on B. in C. back D. for
128. A. mystery B. mysterious C. mysteriously D. mysteries
129. A. late B. recent C. past D. early
130. A. had B. took C. raised D. became
Part VI. WRITING
Exercise 13. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
131. The American are less formal in addressing their bosses than the South Korean.
A. The South Korean are less formal in addressing their bosses than the American.
B. Both the American and the South Korean have the same formality in addressing their bosses.
C. The South Korean are more informal in addressing their bosses than the American.
D. The South Korean are more formal in addressing their bosses than the American.
132. Nothing is more precious than happiness and health.
A. Happiness and health are the most precious things.
B. Happiness is more precious than health.
C. Health is more precious than happiness.
D. Happiness and health are more and more precious.
133. I’ve never seen such a nice bouquet of wedding flowers.
A. This bouquet of wedding flowers is the nicest that I’ve ever made.
B. This is the nicest bouquet of wedding flowers that I’ve ever seen.
C. I ve never seen the nicest bouquet of w edding flowers so far.
D. Nothing I’ve seen is nicer than this bouquet of wedding flowers.
134. Ice-hockey is one of the most popular sports in Russia.
A. In Russia, ice-hockey is more popular than any other sports.
B. In Russia, no sport is more popular than ice-hockey.
C. In Russia, no sport is less popular than ice-hockey.
D. In Russia, one of the most popular sports is ice-hockey.
135. Tet holiday is the most interesting Vietnamese traditional festival that he’s ever attended.
A. Tet holiday is more interesting than the Vietnamese traditional festival that he’s ever attended.
B. He has never attended a more interesting Vietnamese traditional festival than Tet holiday.
C. He has attended many interesting Vietnamese traditional festival including Tet holiday.
D. Tet holiday is one of the most interesting Vietnamese traditional festival he’s ever attended.
136. There are more superstitious beliefs in Eastern countries than in Western ones.
A. Western countries don’t have fewer superstitious beliefs than Eastern ones.
B. Eastern countries have more superstitious beliefs than Western ones.
C. Eastern and Western countries have many more superstitious beliefs.
D. More superstitious beliefs exist in Western countries than in Eastern ones.
137. Pho (rice noodles) is believed to be the most typical food in Viet Nam.
A. It is believed that Pho (rice noodles) is the most typical food in Viet Nam.
B. A more typical food than Pho (rice noodles) is believed in Viet Nam.
C. I believe that Viet Nam has the most typical food like Pho (rice noodles).
D. No food in Viet Nam is less typical than Pho (rice noodles).
138. I have never read a better book about cultural diversity I have ever read.
A. This book is a good book about cultural diversity I have ever read.
B. This is the best book about cultural diversity I have ever read.
C. This book is as good as the one about cultural diversity I have ever read.
D. The book about cultural diversity I have ever read isn’t better than this one.
139. Money is more important than prestige to some Americans.
A. Some Americans like prestige more than money.
B. Money is of greater importance to some Americans than prestige.
C. Money and prestige are of equal importance to some Americans.
D. Money is less preferable to some Americans than prestige.
140. There were more guests at my cousin’s wedding than expected.
A. We didn’t expect fewer guests to attend my cousin’s wedding.
B. We expected to receive more guests at my cousin’s wedding.
C. Fewer guests came to my cousin’s wedding than we expected.
D. More guests came to my cousin’s wedding than we expected.