No. Word Pronunciation Type Meaning
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1. Past perfect.

1.1.Công thức thì quá khứ hoàn thành

Câu khẳng định Câu phủ định Câu nghi vấn
S + had + VpII S + hadn’t + VpII Had + S + VpII ?

1.2. Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ hoàn thành

Trong câu có các từ:

– when: Khi

When they arrived at the airport, her flight had taken off. (Khi họ tới sân bay, chuyến bay của cô ấy đã cất cánh.)

– before: trước khi (Trước “before” sử dụng thì quá khứ hoàn thành và sau “before” sử dụng thì quá khứ đơn.)

She had done her homework before her mother asked her to do so. (Cô ấy đã làm bài tập về nhà trước khi mẹ cô ấy yêu cầu cô ấy làm như vậy.)

– After: sau khi (Trước “after” sử dụng thì quá khứ đơn và sau “after” sử dụng thì quá khứ hoàn thành.)

They went home after they had eaten a big roasted chicken. (Họ về nhà sau khi đã ăn một con gà quay lớn.)

– by the time (vào thời điểm)

He had cleaned the house by the time her mother came back. (Cậu ấy đã lau xong nhà vào thời điểm mẹ cậu ấy trở về.)

1.    Adjectives with ‘to’-infinitive or ‘that’-clauses 

2.1. After link verbs, you often use adjectives that describe how someone feels about an action or situation. With some adjectives, you can add a ‘to’-infinitive clause or a ‘that’-clause to say what the action or situation is.

afraid disappointed happy sad
anxious frightened pleased surprised
ashamed glad proud unhappy

-        If the subject is the same in both clauses, you usually use a ‘to’-infinitive clause. If the subject is different, you must use a ‘that’-clause.

I was happy to see them again.

He was happy that they were coming to the party.

-        You often use a ‘to’-infinitive clause when talking about future time in relation to the main clause.

I am afraid to go home.

He was anxious to leave before it got dark.

-        You often use a ‘that’-clause when talking about present or past time in relation to the main clause.

He was anxious that the passport was missing.

They were afraid that I might have talked to the police.

2. 2. You often use ‘sorry’ with a ‘that’-clause. Note that ‘that’ is often omitted.

I'm very sorry that I can't join you.

I'm sorry I'm so late.

2.3. Some adjectives are not usually used alone, but have a ‘to’-infinitive clause after them to say what action or situation the adjective relates to.

able due likely unlikely
apt inclined prepared unwilling
bound liable ready willing

They were unable to help her.

They were not likely to forget it.

I am willing to try.

I'm prepared to say I was wrong.

2.4. When you want to express an opinion about someone or something, you often use an adjective followed by a ‘to’-infinitive clause.

difficult easy impossible possible right wrong

She had been easy to deceive.

The windows will be almost impossible to open.

2.5. With some adjectives, you use a ‘that’-clause to express an opinion about someone or something.

awful extraordinary important sad
bad funny interesting TRUE
essential good obvious

I was sad that people had reacted in this way.

It is extraordinary that we should ever have met!

2.6. You can also use adjectives with ‘to’-infinitive clauses after ‘it’ as the impersonal subject. You use the preposition ‘of ’ or ‘for’ to indicate the person or thing that the adjective relates to.

It was easy to find the path.

It was good of John to help me.